2014年GRE考试阅读材料辅导(2)

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简介 为什么人类的婴幼期如此漫长 Whyarechildrenso,well,sohelplessWhydidIspendarecentSundaymorningputtingblueberry

2014年GRE考试阅读材料辅导(2)

 为什么人类的婴幼期如此漫长  Whyarechildrenso,well,sohelplessWhydidIspendarecentSundaymorningputtingblueberrypancakebitsonmy1-year-oldgrandsonsforkandthenpickingthemupagainoffthefloorAndwhyaretoddlersmosthelplesswhentheyretryingtobehelpfulAugiesvigorouseffortstosweepupthepancakedetrituswithamuch-too-largebroom(Iclean!)wereadorablebutnotexactlyeffective.  Thisisntjustacaregiverscridecoeur--itnesaliveThisisespeciallytrueofourhumanyoung,helplessandneedyforfarlongerthantheyoungofotherprimates.  Oneideaisthatourdistinctthanstay-at-homechimps,andwithourpropensityforculture,,fromawhiskbroomtoawinningcomment,beforewehavetousethemtosurvive.  Theusualmuseumdioramaofou,withgroundcassavarootsinsteadofpancakes,mightbemoreaccurate,iflessexciting.  Ofcourse,manyscientistsarejustifiablyskepticalaboutsuchjust-sostories,butwhatkindofevidencecouldsupport(orrefute)itTheresstillcontroversy,buttworecentstudiesatleastshowhowwemightgoaboutprovingtheideaempirically.  Oneoftheproblemswithmuchevolutionarypsychologyisthatitjustconcentratesonhumans,,nsOrwillwefindthesameevolutionarypatterninanimalswhoareverydifferentfromusIn2010,VeraWeisbeckerofCambridgeUniversityandacolleaguefoundacorrelationbetweenbrainsizeanddependenceacross52differentspeciesofmarsupials,fromfamiliaroneslikekangaroosandopossumstomoreexoticoneslikequokkas.  QuokkasareaboutthesamesizeasVirginiaopossums,butbabyquokkasnurseforthreetimesaslong,theirparentsinvestmoreineachbaby,andtheirbrainsaretwiceasbig.  ButdoanimalsactuallyusetheirbigbrainsandlongchildhoodstolearnIn2011,JennyHolzhaideroftheUniversityofAuckland,NewZealand,andhercolleagueslookedatanevenmoredistantlyrelatedspecies,olsfrompalmleaves--andarefledglingsformuchlongerthannot-so-brightbirdslikechickens.  Atfirst,thebabycrowsareaboutasgoodatdiggingasmyAugieisatsweepgs(ratherthanblueberries)untiltheyeventuallylearntomastertheleavesthemselves.  Studyingthedevelopmentofquokkasandcrowsisonew,reoutjusthowthosedarnedbroomswork.  为什么儿童会,怎么说呢,会那么弱小无助呢为什么最近某个星期天的早晨我都在给一岁大的孙儿的餐叉插上细碎的蓝莓薄饼碎块,然后又把它们从地板上捡起来呢为什么蹒跚学步的幼儿在试着帮忙时却总是那么无用呢奥吉(Augie)拿起一把超大的扫帚(嘴里喊着我扫!)想努力帮忙的举动讨人喜欢,但却压根儿没有帮助。